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Physical Features

Sikkim, a part of the lesser, central, and Tethys Himalaya, is a mountainous state without any significant flat land. The larger part of the state is made up of Precambrian rock and is comparatively younger than the Northern, Eastern and Western portion of the state. The rise of the mountains is northward.

The state is cut into steep escarpments in the north with the exception of the Lachung and Lachen valleys, which is thinly populated. In contrast to Northern Sikkim, Southern Sikkim, is lower, more open, and fairly well cultivated. The drainage of the rivers in the state is towards the south. The Rangeet and the Teesta are the major river systems of the state.

These rivers cut through the valleys and in addition there are 180 perennial lakes at different altitudes. The state has many hot water springs like Phur-Cha, Ralang Sachu, Yumthang, and Momay. The snowline starts at around 5,248 m in Sikkim.

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